Let us go back to History: 1857 Revolt
1857 revolt was the war for the Independence by the Indians against the British East India Company? Read its causes and failure reason here!
The revolt or rebellion began because of the irritation that born in diverse perception. These perceptions include invasive British-style reforms, harsh land taxes, summary treatment of some rich landowners and princes, as well as skepticism about the improvements brought by British rule. Many Indians raised their voice and did rise against the Britishers but some people fought and the majority remained seemingly compliant to British rule.
The Indian rebellion of 1857 is the first time when British rule in India shattered. The first leader and martyr of the revolt were Mangal Pandey. There are some more rebellions and leaders included Rani Lakshmi Bai, Kunwar Singh, Bahadur Shah, Nana Saheb, Tania Tope and Begum Hazrat Mahal who fight against the Britishers.
Causes of the revolt
In the revolt of 1857 rumors played a very crucial role. There are many reasons for the revolt which result in an accumulation of factor over time. There is not only political but there were some other major factors too.
The revolt 1857 begun with a mutiny of the sepoys when they had introduced a new Enfield rifle and its cartridges had a greased paper cover whose end to be bitten of before the cartridges were loaded into the rifle. When the sepoys got to know that the grease was of composed of beef and pig fat, they denied doing that. This worked as the spark of fire among the masses against the Britishers. The sepoys of both religion Hindi and Muslims were engaged to use the greased cartridges which would endanger their religion. In Hindus cow is worshiped and in Muslims eating pig is considered as a curse. This led to believe sepoys that the government want to destroy their religion.
The Indian sepoys are paid less salary and the higher post they have given is the ‘Subedar’. There is an immense difference between the Britishers and Indians. The working conditions for India sepoys were adverse. They have to cross the sea whenever needed and they have to serve far away from their homes without incentives.
Social and Religious cause
The religious cause is that the Christian priest was openly trying to convert the religion of villagers. People thought that under the name of modern education they want to abolish their culture and heritage. The Britishers abolished the ‘Sati Pratha’ and Hindu widow remarriage act was introduced. The inheritance of property from father to son was also abolished.
In the rule of Lord Dalhousie, he said that if the king dies without natural heir then the kingdom would be annexed by Britishers and under his rule many thousands of people got unemployed. His policy of annexation and the doctrine of lapse had made the Indian rulers angry and insecure. After the death of Bahadur Shah Jafar II, Lord Canning took away the regel title and Mughal Palace, this also hurt the sentiments of Muslims.
The Britisher excluded all the Indian from the high posts jobs of civil and military as well so the educated class Indians remained disappointed. There was a replacement of language from Persian to English as the courtrooms language which was not liked by the people. Under British rule, both peasants and landlords suffered because of the revenue system of the Britishers
Reasons for the failure of the revolt
There was no planning among the rebels and it was an unorganized effort. The leadership was weak and there was no direction to the movement. Many people didn’t participate
The British army was superior in organization and they had unlimited supplies. Indian had limited supplies and outdated ammunition.
There was no alternative to feudalism put forth by the rebels and not all sections of the society participated. Princes and educated class people stayed away.
The revolt occurred mainly in Kanpur, Lucknow, Aligarh, Agra, Delhi, Jhansi, and Awadh. Communication gap was one of the major reasons for the failure of 1857 revolt.