India and its neighboring countries

This article aims to delve into India and its neighboring countries from the perspective of the SSC CGL/CHSL and Banking examinations

India is the 7th Largest Country in the world.

India is a peninsular landform with Bay of Bengal bordering the East side of the peninsular region, Arabian Sea on the west side of the peninsular region and Indian Ocean on the south.
India has a Land border of 15,200Km and 7516 KM of coastal borders.
Following are the countries that share a border with India:

a) Afghanistan – Afghanistan shares a 106 KM Border Length with Pakistan
occupied Kashmir in India
b) Bangladesh – Bangladesh shares a 4096 KM border with West Bengal,
Meghalaya, Mizoram, Tripura and Assam.
c) Bhutan – Bhutan Shares a 699 KM border with West Bengal, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh and Assam.
d) China– China shares a 3488 KM border with Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttrakhand, Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh.
e) Myanmar – Myanmar shares a 1643 KM border with Arunachal Pradesh,
Nagaland, Mizoram and Manipur
f) Nepal– India shares a 1751 KM border with Bihar, Uttrakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Sikkim and West Bengal.
G) Pakistan –India shares a 3323 Km Border with Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab, Rajasthan and Gujarat.

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India and its neighboring countries

India also shares Maritime borders with Sri Lanka and the Maldives.

India and Afghanistan

The relations between India and Afghanistan have been strong and friendly.
India was the only country to recognize Afghanistan in the 1980s.
India aided the overthrowing of the Taliban Government and provided
humanitarian aid to improve the conditions.
India has also undertaken various infrastructure projects such as Salma Dam.
The Chabar Port and Trans-Afghanistan pipeline (TAPI) has led to better relations between India and Afghanistan

India and Bangladesh

India and Bangladesh share a complicated past as the liberation war of East
Pakistan or Bangladesh was entwined with the India Pakistan war of 1971.
Many disputes have taken place with Bangladesh in the past such as the Farraka Barrage, Tin Bigha corridor and illegal immigration disputes.
The countries share a trade of $10 billion.

India and Bhutan

The relations between India and Bhutan have been close.
Bhutan is a protected but not a protectorate state as signed on in 1949.
Bhutan has always been a supporter of India. It supported India in the non-alignment movement and opposed china during the Doklam standoff.
An Indian Military Training Team (IMTRAT) is permanently based in Bhutan to train the army there and India provides unimpended support to Bhutan officials.

India and China

India and china had extremely peaceful relations up till 1961.The Slogan Hindi Chini Bhai Bhai was extremely popular and the countries had a bilateral co-operation on various topics.
However, the war of 1962 with china strained the relationships and India felt foolish as China betrayed their trust.
The Chola incident of 1967 and the 2017 Doklam standoff intensified the conflict with china further.
The trade between India and China amounts to a whopping $89.6 Billion.

India and Mayanmar

India and Myanmar relations improved considerably since 1993. Tensions on drugtr afficking and the supresssion of democracy in the country were there previously.
India has provided large scale economic relief and provided disaster support to Myanmar whenever possible.
However, the Rohingya crisis caused a stir amongst the Indians and Indians refused to take in refugees due to security reasons, however it was found that over 40,000 rohingya muslim imigrants had taken shelter in assam, Bengal and Kashmir.

India and Nepal

India and Nepal have been regionally connected and share a deep friendship. However, since 2015, political issues and border disputes have strained the relationships between the 2 countries.
The disputes such as Kalapani and the Madhesi have led to anti Indian
sentiments in Nepal

Nepal also supports China’s one belt one road initiative which strained its
relations with India.

India and Pakistan

Relations between these 2 countries have been extremely complex and hostile.

On almost all issues, both these countries have been on opposite ends.

The countries have fought 3 major wars since their split along with many
international confrontations, border firing, and military standoffs.

Various international organizations have tried to settle disputes between the 2 countries and various agreements such as the Shimla Summit, Agra Summit and the Lahore Summit have attempted to bring peace but failed.

After the 2016 Pathankot attacks, Uri surgical strike, Pulwama attack and the abrogation of article 370 and 35A has led to escalation of tension between the countries.

India and Sri-Lanka

India and Sri-Lanka share cordial relations.
The cultural ties of India and Sri-Lanka are based on the collective beliefs of
Buddhism and Hinduism.
Trade accounting to $3.5 billion and counting is taking place between the 2
countries after signing a free trade agreement.


Maldives enjoys the protection of India in case of external aggression.
Both nations undergo military exercises regularly.
India helps Maldives by investing heavily in infrastructure projects.

India has gifted many aircrafts to the Maldives air-force.
India and its neighboring countries are a part of various organizations:


OrganizationNeighboring Countries
BRICS (Brazil, China, India and South
BIMSTEC (Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-sectoral Technical and economic co-operation)Bangladesh, Myanmar, Nepal, Bhutan, Sri-Lanka,
SAARC( South Asian Association for
regional co-operation)
Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Sri-Lanka, Nepal, Pakistan
SCO (Shanghai Co-operation
China, Pakistan
IORA( Indian Ocean Rim Association)Bangladesh
G-20 SummitChina
Mekong- Ganga CooperationMyanmar
ACD (Asia co-operation dialogue)China, Pakistan, Sri-Lanka, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Myanmar, Nepal

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